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romaniaflag.gif (352 bytes)                ROMANIA

 

Source:  http://www.actwin.com/eatonohio/gay/world.htm

ROMANIA LAWS: 1. Repealed its sodomy laws, leaving in place a provision giving 5 years in prison for homosexuals inciting a (public scandal). A public scandal is defined as any homosexual relationship found offensive by two or more people.
2. Bans the presentation of homosexuality in a positive light.
3. Has a national gay rights law that bans some anti-gay discrimination.
NOTE: 1. Rasvan Dobrescu (National Peasant Party), member of the Lower House of Parliament is very anti-gay.
2. President Emil Constantinescu says he will pardon all prisoners jailed in his country on homosexual morals charges.

 

Source:   http://www.interpol.int/Public/Children/SexualAbuse/NationalLaws/

Romania - Roumanie - Rumania                   Bucarest

I. Ages légaux
Age de la majorité simple
L’âge légal de la majorité est fixé à dix-huit (18) ans.

Age du consentement à l’acte sexuel
L’âge légal du consentement à l’acte sexuel est fixé à quatorze (14) ans.

Age du consentement au mariage
L’âge légal du consentement au mariage est fixé à seize (16) ans.

Les infractions concernant la vie sexuelle sont prévues dans la partie spéciale Titre II, Chapitre II, à
savoir :

II. Viol
‘Viol’, Article 197 du Code Pénal
" Le rapport sexuel avec une personne de sexe féminin, par sa contrainte, ou en profitant de son
impossibilité de se défendre ou d’exprimer sa volonté est puni d’emprisonnement de 3 à 10 ans.

La peine est l’emprisonnement de 5 à 15 ans si :
a) la victime n’a pas atteint l’âge de quatorze (14) ans ;
b) la victime se trouvait sous le soin, la protection, l’éducation, la garde ou le traitement de l’auteur ;
c) on a provoqué à la victime un dommage grave de l’intégrité corporelle ou de la santé.

La peine est l’emprisonnement de 10 à 20 ans si la victime avait au-dessous de quatorze (14) ans
et l’emprisonnement de 15 à 20 ans si le fait a eu comme suite la mort ou le suicide de la victime.
L’action pénale pour le fait prévu au premier alinéa est engagée à la plainte préalable de la victime.

Les faits prévus aux alinéas 1, 2.b et c.3.1 ne sont pas punis si, avant que le jugement soit définitif,
soit conclu un mariage entre l’auteur et la victime. En cas de participation, dans d’autres
conditions que celles prévues à l’alinéa 2.a, le mariage conclu entre l’auteur et la victime produit
les mêmes effets envers les participants. "

III. Autres formes d’abus sexuels sur enfants
‘Rapport sexuel avec un mineur d’âge’, Article 198 du Code Pénal

" Le rapport sexuel avec une personne de sexe féminin qui n’a pas atteint l’âge de quatorze (14)
ans, est puni d’une peine d’emprisonnement de 1 à 15 ans.

De la même peine est puni le rapport sexuel avec une personne de sexe féminin entre quatorze
(14) dix-huit (18) ans, si le fait est commis par le tuteur ou le curateur, ou par le surveillant,
l’intendant, le médecin curant, le professeur ou l’éducateur en utilisant sa qualité.

Quand le fait prévu au premier alinéa a été commis dans les circonstances prévues dans l’article
197, al.2.b ou si les faits prévus aux alinéas 1 et 2 ont eu les conséquences prévues dans l’article
197, al.2.c, la peine est l’emprisonnement de 3 à 12 ans.

Si le fait a eu comme conséquence la mort de la victime, la peine est l’emprisonnement de 7 à 15
ans.

Les dispositions de l’article 197, alinéa final, s’appliquent également dans le cas des faits prévus
aux alinéas 1-3. "

‘Séduction’, Article 199 du Code Pénal
" Le fait de quiconque qui, par promesses de mariage, détermine une personne de sexe féminin âgée
de moins de dix-huit (18) ans d’avoir avec lui un rapport sexuel, est puni d’une peine
d’emprisonnement de 1 à 5 ans. "

‘Relations sexuelles entre personnes du même sexe’, Article 200 du Code Pénal
" Les relations sexuelles entre les personnes du même sexe, commises en publique ou si elles ont
provoqué un scandale publique, sont punies d’une peine d’emprisonnement de 1 à 5 ans.

Le fait pour un majeur d’avoir des relations sexuelles avec un mineur d’âge du même sexe est puni
d’une peine d’emprisonnement de 2 à 7 ans et de l’interdiction de certains droits.

L’incitation ou l’allèchement d’une personne en vue de pratiquer des relations sexuelles entre les
personnes du même sexe, ainsi que la propagande ou l’association ou toute autre acte de
prosélytisme commis dans le même but, sont punis d’une peine d’emprisonnement de 1 à 5 ans. "

‘La perversion sexuelle’, Article 201 du Code Pénal
" Les actes de perversion sexuelle commis en public ou provoquant un scandale public sont punis
d’une peine d’emprisonnement de 1 à 5 ans.

Les dispositions de l’article 200, alinéas 2-5 s’appliquent de façon adéquate.
Constituent des actes de perversion sexuelle, tout acte anormal lié à la vie sexuelle, autre que
ceux prévus à l’article 200. "

‘La corruption sexuelle’, Article 202 du Code Pénal
" Les actes à caractère obscène commis sur un mineur d’âge ou dans la présence d’un mineur, sont
punis d’une peine d’emprisonnement de 3 mois à 2 ans ou d’une amende. "

‘L’inceste’, Article 203 du Code Pénal
" Le rapport sexuel entre les parents en ligne directe ou entre frères et soeurs, est puni d’une
peine d’emprisonnement de 2 à 7 ans. "

IV. La prostitution enfantine
‘La prostitution’, Article 328 du Code Pénal

" Le fait de la personne qui se procure ses moyens d’existence ou les principaux moyens
d’existence, en pratiquant dans ce but des rapports sexuels avec différentes personnes, est punie
d’une peine d’emprisonnement de 3 mois à 3 ans. "

‘Le proxénétisme’, Article 329 du Code Pénal
" L’incitation ou la contrainte à la prostitution, ou la facilitation de pratiquer la prostitution, ou
l’obtention des profits à la suite de la pratique de la prostitution par une personne, ainsi que le
recrutement d’une personne pour la prostitution, ou le trafic de personnes dans ce but, sont punies
d’une peine d’emprisonnement de 2 à 7 ans et de l’interdiction de certains droits.

Si le fait prévu à l’alinéa 1 est commis auprès d’un mineur d’âge ou présente un autre caractère
grave, la peine est l’emprisonnement de 3 à 10 ans et l’interdiction de certains droits.

L’argent, les valeurs ou tout autre bien ayant servi ou étant destiné à servir, directement ou
indirectement, à la commission de l’infraction prévue aux alinéas 1 et 2, et ceux qui ont été
obtenus par la commission de celle-ci, sont confisqués, et s’ils ne peuvent être trouvés, le
condamné est tenu au paiement de leur équivalent en argent. "


V. La pornographie enfantine
Aucune information concernant exclusivement la pornographie enfantine ne nous a été
communiquée.

‘La diffusion de matériaux obscènes’, Article 325 du Code Pénal

" Le fait de vendre ou de diffuser, ainsi que de fabriquer ou de détenir en vue de la diffusion
d’objets, de dessins, d’écritures ou d’autres matériaux à caractère obscène, est puni d’une peine
d’emprisonnement de 3 mois à 2 ans ou d’une amende. "

 

 

 

REAEARCHER NOTES
We believe the age of consent to be 14, but a change is being pushed ot make it at least 15.

 

 

From: steff@inet.uni2.dk
Date: Fri, 24 Apr 1998 23:15:22 +0200 (METDST)
Subject: EuroLetter 59
EURO-LETTER 
No. 59						April 1998
THE EURO-LETTER IS PUBLISHED ON BEHALF OF ILGA-EUROPE - THE
EUROPEAN REGION OF THE INTERNATIONAL LESBIAN AND GAY ASSOCIATION
BY GAY AND LESBIAN INTERNATIONAL LOBBY IN CO-OPERATION WITH THE
DANISH NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR GAYS AND LESBIANS. 
http://www.france.qrd.org/assocs/ilga/euroletter.html
http://www.qrd.org/qrd/www/orgs/ILGA/euroletter 
IN THIS ISSUE
ACCEPT's PROPOSED NEW LEGISLATION (ROMANIA)
Consolidated versions of the basic treaties of the European
Union including amendments from the Amsterdam Treaty can be
found at this web-site:
http://ue.eu.int/Amsterdam/en/traiteco/en1.htm
I


ACCEPT's PROPOSED NEW LEGISLATION (ROMANIA)

Draft bill for the modification of the Penal Code provisions relating to sex life.

ACCEPT has submitted to the Ministry of Justice a draft Bill for the abolition of Art. 200 of the
Penal Code and for the modification of the other articles of the chapter "Sex-related
criminal offences" so that the punishment for rape, sexual relations with minors and sexual molestation no longer depends on the sexual orientation of the offender.

The idea of submitting such a draft bill belongs to Manuela Stefanescu, member of ACCEPT and co-president of APADOR-CH.  Scott Long, member of ACCEPT and Advocacy Co-ordinator of
IGLHRC, with his well-known enthusiasm and knowledge has drafted the initial text of this Bill. The work was completed by Monica Macovei - lawyer and author of several draft Bills - who
supported this draft Bill at the ACCEPT press Conference on 6th March 1998, asking the Romanian and overseas organisations to show the Romanian authorities that abolishing Art. 200 means something more than a 'favour' shown to Romanians who dare to
love in a different way. We thank everybody for the enthusiasm and dedication they have
shown by working for this draft Bill.

A. Rationale
By means of Resolution 1123 of 24 April 1997, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe decided a) to cease monitoring the way Romania respects the obligations it has committed itself to upon becoming a fully-fledged member of the Council of
Europe; b) to resume monitoring if within one year after the adoption of the Resolution the Romanian State does not fulfil the conditions explictly mentioned in this document.

Point 9 of the Resolution refers to the modification of Art. 200 of the Penal Code, while the Jansson Report, on the basis of which the Resolution was adopted, provides explicitly for the
complete repeal of this text.

The present draft Bill meets the requirements of the Parliamentary Assembly and sets out to adapt the penal law both to reality and the European norms in the field. Acceptance of
diversity is an essential feature of a democratic society. The European Human Rights Court has consistently applied this principle since the case of Dudgeon against Northern Ireland, in
1981, constantly developing its case-law towards decriminalisation of same-sex relations as a requirement of modern society.

In applying the constitutional principle of non-discrimination on account of sex, not only does the draft Bill propose decriminalisation of same-sex relations between consenting
adults, but also the adoption of unique penal provisions for situations where sexual relations are situated outside the law (coercion or minor age) irrespective of the partners' sex. In
this context, the draft Bill provides a definition of sexual relations in order to eliminate misinterpretations and to include all possible situations, thus preventing the penal law
from being used in an abusive manner.

The authors have also tried to comply with the need to respect constiutional rights to freedom of expression and association as well as the prinicple of non-discrimination, requirements that
have led to repealing the infringement of these rights in connection with same-sex relations.

In order to protect minors, irrespective of their sex, the draft Bill suggests modifications of the penal law in the sense of raising the age-limit for victims of any kind of sexual abuse
and of broadening the range of situations in which minors are considered to be sexually assaulted, expanding thus the scope of criminal liability in this field.

The draft Bill provides a complete reformulation of Title II, Chapter III: "Sex-related offences" of the Penal Code, unifying and co-ordinating the legal texts.

To conclude, this draft Bill attempts to cover from the perspective of penal law a broad range of sexual relations and to bring Romanian legislation up to date with European standards
and the requirements of a civilised modern society where individual rights are genuinely observed.

B. Title II Criminal offences against individuals

Chapter III - Sex-related offences

Art. 197 "Rape" Paragraph 1 shall be modified to read as follows:

"Sexual relations with a person unable to defend him/herself, to express his/her will or by coercion shall by punished by imprisonment for between 3 and 10 years.

Par. 2 remains as follows:
"Punishment shall be imprisonment for between 5 and 15 years if: - the act was perpetrated by two or more persons acting together; - the victim was placed under the perpetrator's care, or
- the victim's health or physical integrity was seriously harmed."

Par. 3 shall be modified to read as follows:
"The punishment shall be imprisonment for between 10 and 20 years where the victim was under 15 years old. Where the act resulted in the victim's death or suicide, the punishment shall
be imprisonment for between 15 and 25 years."

Par. 4 remains as follows:
"Investigations into the offence under par. 1 shall start only upon the complaint of the alleged victim."

Par. 5 shall be replaced by the following:
"Sexual relations shall be defined under the penal law as the inserion of a penis into a vagina, anal or oral cavity, as well as the insertion of any foregn object into the vagina or anal
cavity."

Article 198: The title shall be amended from "sexual relations with a minor girl" to "sexual relations with minor persons"

Par. 1 shall be modified to read as follows:
"Sexual relations with a person under 15 shall be punished by imprisonment for between 1 and 5 years."

Par. 2 shall be modified to read as follows:
"The same punishment shall apply to sexual relations with persons aged between 15 and 18 where perpetrated by the tutor or guardian, or by a person who takes care of or is in charge of
the alleged victim, the personal doctor, teacher or trainer, by availing himself of this position."

Par. 3 shall be modified to read as follows:
"When the acts defined by Pars. 1 and 2 have the consequences specified in Art. 197 par. 2 letter c), then the punishment shall be improsonment for between 3 and 12 years."

Par. 4 remains unchanged and reads as follows:
"If the act resulted in the victim's death, the punishment shall be imprisonment for between 7 and 15 years."

Article 200 - Same-sex relations - shall be entirely repealed.

Article 201 - Acts of sexual perversity - shall be entirely repealed.

Article 202 shall be re-titled from "Sexual corruption" to "sexual molestation". The text of the single Paragraph shall be modified to read as follows: "Any person who sexually touches a child under 15 or exposes himself to such a child in an offensive manner or induces the child to undertake or participate in an act with sexual implications, other than by committing any of the offences
defined in the preceding Articles of this Chapter, shall be punished by imprisonment for between one month and two years or by a fine."

Article 203 - Incest - shall remain unchanged

Article 204 - Attempts - shall be modified to read as follows: "Attempts to commit the crimes defined under Articles 197, 198, 202 and 203 shall be punished." [sic]

C  -  Explanations and technical notes

Article 197 - "Rape" -
Paragraph 1 introduces the phrase 'sexual relations' to cover all sexual acts irrepective of the participants' sex. The current penal provisions use three different phrases (sexual
intercourse, sexual relation and acts of sexual perversity) to distinguish between "normal" and "abnormal" acts, both with regard to the type of sexual acts and the particpants. We
eliminate this distinction because it does not agree with reality and it runs counter to the principle of
non-discrimination on account of sex. The phrase "sexual relations" is defined in Par. 5 and used
consistently throughout Chapter III. 

Par. 2 is not modified

Par. 3 contains a single modification: the victim's age-limit is raised from 14 to 15 years. The 14-year age-limit is one of the lowest in Europe. Thus children of both sexes enjoy increased
protection. At present, even family law sets 15 years as the minimum "age of consent" for girls (with special licence, departing from the age-limit of 16). This proves that sexual relations under 15 years old are considered harmful for health, causing more serious damages; de lege ferenda, the minimum age for consent  should be the same for men and women, but this matter exceeds the aims of the present draft Bill. However, it is obvious that the 14-year-old limit does not concur with
medical conceptions regarding the physiological capacity to have sexual intercourse; consequently the aggravated form of rape should be related to an age superior to fourteen.

Paragraph 4 is not modified

Paragraph 5 is completely repealed. The current proviso according to which the perpetrator who marries the victim will not be punished gives the impression that rape is a crime
against honour (which can be nullified by marriage), rather than a crime of violence. In fact, the repeal of this provision is welcomed by women victims of rape, who have been subject to
pressure to get married without their full consent. Such marriages are usually doomed to failure, becasuse they are founded on a violent act instead of mutual understanding. The
provision currently allows persons to commit violent acts with impunity and does noting to help the victims. Other European States do not have similar legal texts.

The new paragraph 5 defines 'sexual relations' - see the comments regarding par. 1.  The proposed text is based on a definition provided by Human Rights Watch - Women's Rights
Project.

Article 198 - "Sexual intercourse with a minor"
Title: is changed to "Sexual relations with minor persons" in order to cover potential victims of both sexes.

Paragraphs 1 and 2: the minimum age of consent is raised from 14 to 15 years - see the comments on Article 197 Par. 3. "Sexual intercourse" is replaced by "sexual relations" - see the
comments on Article 197 Par. 1.

Paragraph 3: The first part, which duplicates the provision of Article 198, is deleted.

Paragraph 4: remains without modification.

Paragraph 5: is completely repealed. This eliminates the current proviso according to which the perpetrator who marries the victim will not be punished - see the comments on Article 197
par. 5. As an additional legal argument, penal incrimination is aimed at protecting minors' health, which cannot be restored by a marriage between the offender and the victim.

Article 199 - "Enticement"
This Article is completely repealed. Sexual relations with a person under 15 are already made punishable by Article 198 of the Penal Code. With regard to persons between 15 and 18 years
old, according to civil law girls are regarded as having the capacity to engage in contractual relations - including marriage - from the age of 16 (15 with special licence). It is therefore
evident that young persons are sufficiently mature to determine whether or not to consent freely to sexual relations at that age.

Article 200 - "Same-sex relations"
This Article is completely repealed, as the necessary protection is now provided by the amendments made to the provisions of the other Articles, so that they now apply regardles of the sex of
the parties concerned. This complies with the principle of non-discrimination on grounds of sex.

The act formerly made punishable by Par. 1 is covered adequately by the provisions of Article 321. The phase "public scandal" has been criticised by the Council of Europe (in the Jansson Report)
and by the european parlaiment, as well as by all national and international organisations involved in the human rights field (see the Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch reports).
Due to the vague wording and hazy contents, this notion has been abosed in judicial practice. It is discriminatory, because it does not apply to hetehrosexual relations, although they produce
identical effects. Furthermore, it is unnecessary so long as persons performing sexual acts in public are liable to punishment under other texts of the Penal Code and Law 61/1991.
The acts made punishable under pars. 2-4 are already included in the proposed revisions of Article 197 et seq. The present differences on the punishment applicable are discriminatory and
unjustified.

Article 201 - "Acts of sexual perversity"
This article is completely repealed - see the comments on Art. 197 par. 1."Abnormal" sexual acts are included within the definition of "sexual relations" in order to respect the right
to private and intimate life, and anybody performing them by coercion, by violence or against minor persons unable to give valid consent are liable to punishment under the preceding
articles. The performance of such acts in public is already punishable under the provisions of Article 321 of the Penal Code and under by-laws - see the comments on Article 200 par. 1.

Article 202 - "Sexual corruption"
The title is changed to "Sexual molestation", because this corresponds to its provisions. The single paragraph is modified by introducing the age-limit of 15 for consent - see the
previous comments on this age-limit. The scope of the provisions is extended and the nature of the possible offences is defined more explictly, in order to ensure that it will be enforced
correctly. The existing text did not provide adequate protection for young people and the new wording is based on the corresponding provision in the Swedish penal law.

Article 203 - "Incest"
This is retained without modification.           

Article 204 - "Attempts"
This is modified to refer to the relevant articles.

D - Recommendations regarding other texts in the Penal Code

Article 325, with the title "Dissemination of obscene materials", is too vague and general; there is a risk that it may be applied abusively and inconsistently because the word
"obscene" is not defined. Its enforcement may lead to unjustified violations of freedom of expression. We propose that this article be repealed and that the provision should be
transferred to a liability under by-laws.

Article 312, with the title "Outrage against decency and disturbance of the peace", is also vaguely worded and has often been enforced abusively (eg the "University Square" cases). The
existing Penal Code provision overlaps with [by-laws]; we propose that this Article should be repleaded and that the offence should be clearly defined and enforced excusively under
by-laws.

Sexual harassment does not at present come within the scope of any provisions in Romanian legislation, but it could be the subject of a new Article in Title II, Chapter III of the Penal
Code: "Sex-related criminal offences".

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